MLA Models: In-Text Citations
A. In-Text Citations (in a Research Paper):
1. Citing sources by one to three authors:
- (Smith 88) (Smith and Lee 88) (Smith, Lee and Zhao 88)
2. Citing sources by four or more than four authors:
- (Smith, Lee, Yetman, and Zhao 88); or (Smith, et al. 88)
- Article: (“Love” 88) Book: (Laughing 88)
4. Citing multiple sources by one author:
- (Thoreau, Walden 88) (Thoreau, “Life” 8)
5. Citing multiple sources in one citation:
- (Adams 18; Baker 28; Chavez and Greenwood 10)
6. Citing a quote indirectly from another source:
- (Henry James qtd. in Yetman 88) (Hemingway qtd. in Winterowd and Lauer 88)
B. Useful Lead-in Expressions:
- According to Gibaldi, author of MLA Handbook (6th ed.), “[F]orms of plagiarism include the failure to give appropriate acknowledgment when repeating or paraphrasing another’s argument […] and when presenting another’s argument or presenting another’s line of thinking” (71). [Any change made in the original needs to be given in square brackets [ ]: [F]' here means quoting begins from the middle of the sentence and the capitalized ‘T’ is made by the research writer--a MLA convention for omitting words at the beginning of a sentence.here '[…]’ means there are words omitted--when omitting words in the middle or at the end of a sentence;
- As Gibaldi points out (claims, believes, argues, explains, etc.), “[F]orms of plagiarism include the failure to give appropriate acknowledgment […]” (71).
- In Gibaldi’s view (mind, eyes, thinking, opinion, argument, etc.), “[F]orms of plagiarism include the failure to give appropriate acknowledgment […]” (71).
- I understand and agree with Gibaldi when he points out that “[F]orms of plagiarism include the failure to give appropriate acknowledgment […]” (71).
- Gibaldi is direct to the point when he denounces the various “forms of plagiarism” as cases of “failure to give appropriate acknowledgment […]” (71).
C. More MLA Conventions:
- MLA stands fro Modern Language Association, the authority association for academic disciplines in language arts and humanities.
- The phrase 'parenthetical documentation or citation' is also commonly used, which means the same as 'in-text citation.'
- MLA requires the use of simple present tense when discussing published sources. In a sense, a work, once published, assumes a fixated form and shape.One way to understand this tense requirement is art. A painting, though drawn in the 18th century, has the same content and looks the same today. This sense of historic presence--being frozen in time--is well captured in the simple present tense. Another example is a photo. No matter when it was taken and how different the person looks now, the photo image does not change.
- When the author’s name is given in the sentence, it is often not necessary to repeat the info in the in-text citation—unless needed for clarity.
- More see 'IQPSR Combo for Research Writing.'